Wednesday, 4 July 2007

Question: What is development Administration? Critically examine its relevancy in developing countries like Nepal.

The developing administration is concerned with the development of a country's economy and the society. This is connected with the positive change of the society in overall aspects for their betterment. The development always centered on human beings or on broader sense we can say should address to the living creature. Nature, living creatures and human beings are closely related with each other. So the system of development administration depends on the socio-economic system prevailing in the country, which in turn depends on socio-economic factors.
In the view of John Montgomery: "Development administration is one which carries out planned change in the economy, in agriculture, industry or the capital infrastructure supporting either of these and to a lesser extent in the social services of the state, especially education and public health."
The above definition in summary we grasp out that the development administration has the appropriate planning and policy for the change and for the betterment on overall aspects of human concern. The state has the responsibility to change the society in a democratic way for the development of its economy and society through empowerment. This is a new phenomenon which is the emerge of globalization.
Development administration is a wing among various aspects of general administration. It is difficult to distinguish from general administration with development administration. But both are not similar in nature but both have close correlation. The developmental roles of public administration are as follows:
1. The role of development administration is to create institutional building for sustainable promotion like industrial, agricultural development, creation of different organizations and institutions for economic uplift and social and environmental development.
2. The manpower planning is essential for the effective implementation of national development plan and policies. This is the concern of development administration.
3. The role of human development would involve changes in the very attitudes and temperament of technical civilization.
4. Development administration conduct by the central loan and grant and central level formulates the policy and controls the programs and projects.
5. The key functions are running in both development and general administration.
6. In all branches of administration there is a need to coordinate with each other. Both the branches have essential elements of hierarchy.

Areas of development administration:

The field of development administration may also be thought of the following areas included:
Extension and Community services
Program management
Area development
Urban and rural administration
Personal development and administration
Economic development
Environment protection

The scholar of development administration Edward Weidner says-"Development administration is directly concerned with goal oriented and functional .The following are the characteristics of the development administration:
· It is change oriented.
· Result oriented.
· It has commitment.
· It is client oriented.
· It has temporal dimension
The scholar Hahn Been Lee has expressed his view on development administration with attributes with the following points:
1. Knowledge (I)
2. Skill (S)
3. Value and attributes (V)
4. Philosophy and standards (E)
The development is the essential factor of the people; this is due to the cause of emitating of others in wards and outwards as well as the requirement of necessities of the people. So the development has become a major focus of administrative activity in the country today. The development has the wide range of scope, which has touch in all aspects of human life. This is being a continuous process and the change of life there may occur some problems in implementation and some may define the terms of development. It may differ time to time and place to place and some time situational. The major scopes of development administration are as follows.
1. It is directly related with the democracy and development. The policies related to the development should formulate in the context of the country's economic, political and social situation.
2. The role of government has been expanding day by day, due to the cause of the high expectation of the people. The government could not able to meet the growing need of the people. So the recent global trend has been developed privatization of the government owned institutions handover to the private sector and the partnership for development with NGO's.
3. The socio-economic and political infrastructure should be expended for the development of the country.
4. The research activities should conduct for the effective implementation of the development activities. It reflects the way-out of the developmental activities to effectively run.
The functions of development administration are as follows.
1. Formulation of developmental goals and policies.
2. Program formulation and program/ project management.
3. Reorganization of administrative structures and procedures.
4. Evaluation of results.
5. Ensuring people's participation in the development effort.
6. Promoting growth of social and political infrastructure.
Development administration in the context of under developed countries.
The development is essential to all type of countries and countrymen. But the urgent need is for the developing countries. Having this in mind a series of efforts has been done by established multilateral agencies for cooperation to LDC's and practices has been experimented in those countries. But the expected results have not reflected as required. The under-developed countries have the following characteristics in which Nepal is also included.
1.Most of the underdeveloped countries have heterogeneous society and institution, which are primitive, diversified and underdeveloped.
2. Overlapping in development activities and people show no concern on development. This is due to the cause of illiteracy, undeveloped infrastructures; various development agencies are working in the same sector and geographical areas, etc.
3. Formalization: -This is one of the characteristics of underdeveloped countries in development administration. The bureaucrats follow the rules and regulations, lengthy procedures and formalities by which the needy people could not get services in time.
4. Non-realization of development effort: There may be done efforts by planners for the nation building and the bureaucrats have made efforts for effective implementation. But due to the lack of resources, may occur hindrances in the execution of the plan and policies. The people's participation is not available in time and in required qualities and quantities. This is the common characteristic of the UDC's.
5. Problem of paradoxes: - The unstable government in underdeveloped countries brings hindrances for the speed of development. In such countries the bureaucracy is weak. So, the development an effort does not get as expected output of the development.

Challenges of development administration:

The developing countries are facing several problems for sustainable development. The main issues are as follows:
1. Geographical situation:- Most of the UDC’s have difficult geographical situation, some have deserted land, some are land locked and some are divided by many tiny islands and so on. These and many others are difficulties in balanced development.
2. Another vital problem of the UDC’s is the high growth rate of population. The total population of the world is divided into 80% in UDC’s and 20% in developed countries. The economic growth rate is less than the population growth rate in UDC’s, which is negative for the development.
3. Political instability: -Due to the various causes such as instability of the government, policies and programs, the path of development is interpreted time to time along with the change of a government.
4. Foreign intervention:-The development budgets of most of the UDC’s are dependent on foreign aids, grants and loans. These may be bilateral or multilateral. They try to impose their policies to the receiver countries. The foreign hegemony affects the development efforts of the receiver countries.
5. Inefficiency in administration:-This is the common problem of the UDC’s , which affects the efficiency of the development activities. Corrupt mentality, irresponsibility and unaccountability etc. are different administrative inefficiency prevalent in the UDC’s. Violation of the rules and regulations in the working institution, lengthy process in decision-making has contributed to the defective administration in underdeveloped countries.
6. Limitations of economic resources: -The underdeveloped countries are always seeking help from the lack of economic resources. Unavailability of raw materials, technical manpower and unscientific use of resources are major hindrances in the development processes.
7. New tests in development:- Rural development module, integrated development, poverty reduction, women development etc. have been tested as development models. The developed countries have tested development models in underdeveloped and developing countries.
8. Lack of coordination:-This is another problem of underdeveloped countries. Vertical and horizontal coordination within the country and outside is disturbing the smooth development of the country.
9. Brain draining:- Most of talents, scholars, and energetic persons have brain draining to the developed countries due to the attractive facilities in the developed countries.
There are so many other factors that they may hinder the balanced development of the country. The economic growth rates, savings of the people, investment in the productive sectors are the considerable factors of the development.
Conclusion:- The ultimate goal of the development administration is to develop in economic, social development in a sustainable manner. The efficient, committed, and goal and result oriented administration ensures good governance to the people which are the center of the development.